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Important Facts about Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory

Important Facts about Jammu and Kashmir In Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar serves as the capital in winter, while in summer it is Jammu.

Important Facts about Jammu and Kashmir 

Important Facts about Jammu and Kashmir

In Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar serves as the capital in winter, while in summer, it's Jammu. The official languages include Urdu, English, Hindi, Kashmiri, and Dogri. The main spoken languages are Kashmiri, Dogri, Gujri, Punjabi, Urdu, Balti, Dadri, Pahari, and Ladakhi. Jammu and Kashmir, including Ladakh, cover an area of 2,22,236 square kilometers, ranking 5th in India. Its population was 12.5 million as per the 2011 census, ranking 19th. There are 20 districts in Jammu and Kashmir and 2 in Ladakh. 

The sex ratio stands at 889 females per 1000 males, according to the 2011 census. The literacy rate is 67.17%. The region has 83 assembly seats in a unicameral legislature. It has 5 Lok Sabha seats plus 1 for Ladakh and 4 Rajya Sabha seats. Jammu and Kashmir was created on 26th October 1947 and was declared a Union Territory on 31st October 2019. Ghulam Md. Sadiq served as its first Chief Minister, while Karan Singh was the first Governor. Mount K2 (Godwin Austen) is its highest peak.

Geographical Facts about Jammu and Kashmir

The Jammu and Kashmir borders with two indian states i.e Himachal Pradesh in Southeast and Punjab in Southwest. Besides it shares international border with Pakistan in west, Afghanistan in North West (symbolic only), China in northeast. Line of control separates it with Pak occupied Kashmir. 

Length of international border shared with Pakistan is 1222 Km and that along China is 1954 Km. JK forms the longest international border length (3176 Km) among all Indian states lying on borders. 

The region has remained a matter of territorial conflict between India and Pakistan. J&K is home to several valleys including — Kashmir valley, Tawi valley, Chenab valley, Poonch valley, Sindh valley and Lidder valley. Pir panjal range closes the main Kashmir valley from west and south and separates it from great planes of north India. 

Leh district which is spread in area of 45110 Sq Km in Laddakh region 1s largest district of Jammu and Kashmir including Ladakh in terms of area. Leh district is also the second largest district of India in terms of area. Leh district is bigger in area than 9 states Haryana, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Sikkim and Goa. Jammu is the biggest district in terms of Papulation.

K2 (Mount Godwin Austin) is the higgest peak of J&K and India with altitude of 8,611 m. This peak is second highest in the world after mount Everest (8,648 m). This is located in Pak occupied Kashmir and virtually under control of Pakistan. 

Jhelum River is the only major river which flows through Kashmir valley. Other major rivers flowing through the J&K are Indus, Chenab, Ravi and Tawi. 

It is home to several long glaciersSiachen glacier being one which is 76 Km long making it longest Himalayan glacier. Gulmarg is a famous tourist destination of Jammu and Kashmir. It is known for its Gondola (Cable car) ride and skiing on slopes of Mount Apharwat. The original name of Gulmarg was Gaurimarg. It was renamed by Sultan Yusuf Shah in 16th century. 

Historical Facts about Jammu and Kashmir 

After independence, when all the states choose to accede with either India or Pakistan, then the King of J&K Raja Hari Singh decided to remain neutral. Soon after this, local tribesmen supported by Pakistani army infiltrated the state. Feared by this, Raja Hari singh signed the Instrument of Accession with India. After this Indian forces entered the state and fought first battle of 1947-48 to drive out the local tribesmen. Gradually the relationship between India and Pakistan worsened and 3 more battles were fought subsequently for control of this state.
  • Indo-Pak War of 1965
  • Indo-Pak war of 1971
  • Kargil war of 1999

During the war of 1947-48, India under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, took the matter of infiltration by Pakistan to United Nations (UN). UN passed a resolution that both the countries to withdraw their armies, after which a plebiscite to be held to acknowledge the mandate of people of Jammu and Kashmir. 

Since both countries failed to withdraw their army from Jammu and Kashmir, plebiscite was never held in the state. The other reason cited by India for not holding the plebiscite was forceful changed demographics of Pakistan occupied Kashmir. 

After the war of 1971, Simla agreement came to existence on 2 July 1972 and a line of control was defined which is still in existence till today. One important outcome of Simla agreement was that both India and Pakistan agreed that all the territorial disputes will be addressed by bilateral dialogue without interference of any third country or organisation. 

India has control over 60 % area of former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, Pak controls 30 % (Gilgit-Baltistan and POK), China controls 10° o area (Aksai Chin & Trans Karakoram tract). China occupied the Aksai Chin area after India’s defeat in Sino -Indian war of 1962. Pak offered the Trans Karakoram tract area to China in 1963. 

Social and Cultural Facts about Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is divided into three religious ethnic groups. The Jammu region has mostly Hindu population; Kashmir valley is dominant with Muslims while the Northern part of Ladakh has purely Buddhist and Tibetan culture. 

Dhumal and Rouff are traditional folk dances of Kashmir valley. Dhumal is dance form of men while Rouff is of women.

Chasme Shahi is a famous Mughal Garden built around a natural spring in Kashmir. 
The spring is known for its medicinal properties. It was built by Shah Jahan in 1632 who is also nick named as Mughal Architect. Shah Jahan gifted this to Dara Shikoh, his elder son. 

Dal Lake is considered as iconic symbol of Srinagar city. The famous Mughal Garden — Shalimar and Nishat Bag are built along the shore of Dal lake. This lake is practically frozen during winter months. This lake is famous for its houseboats. 

Shankaracharya Temple, Chasme Shahi, Nagin lake, Hari Parbat and Hazratbal Shrine are some places of interest surrounding the Dal lake. 

Mata Vaishno Devi is the popular religious destination which is located on Trikuta mountains. An estimated one crore pilgrims visit this shrine every year. 

Literacy rate of JK is 67.7% which is well below India’s average literacy rate of 74.04%.  JK stands at 23rd position among Indian states in terms of literacy. Jammu and Kashmir is the only single UT in India with Muslim majority. Dogras, Gujjars and Gaddis are the important nomadic tribes of the state. 

Economic Facts about Jammu and Kashmir 

Economy of Jammu and Kashmir is governed by mostly Agriculture and tourism. Jammu and Udhampur are the main railway stations. The railway line has been extended to Srinagar and Qazigund-Banihal in Ramban district. 

Sericulture (silk worm farming) and Pisci culture (Fish Farming) is important Economic aspect of the state. Main agricultural products for which Jammu and Kashmir is known are Saffron, Apple, Cherries, Almonds and Wall nuts. Main industries of Jammu & Kashmir are Handicraft, carpet, wood carving, Shawl making. 

Kashmir is famous for its “Pashmina Shawl” which is top exporting product. One of rare facts about Jammu and Kashmir is that this is well known for manufacturing of Cricket bat (Cricket Willow). Mineral Resources of Jammu and Kashmir is Mica, fire clay, limestone. kaolin, bauxite. 

Jammu and Kashmir State Symbols

State Animal of Jammu and Kashmir 

The Hangul or Kashmir Stag (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is a sub-species of elk of India, especially in Jammu and Kashmir. It is listed as critically endangered by IUCN. Dachigam National Park is the home of this species. 

State Bird of Jammu and Kashmir 

The Black-Necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is the official State Bird of Jammu and Kashmir. It is facing a high risk of extinction and included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (vulnerable). It is found in Eastern Ladakh. 

State Tree of Jammu and Kashmir 

The Chinar tree (Platanus orientalis) is the official State Tree of the Jammu and Kashmir. It is also called Booune in the Kashmiri language. It is a large deciduous tree which is known for its longevity and spreading crown. 

State Flower of Jammu and Kashmir 

The Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is the official State Flower of Jammu and Kashmir. It symbolises purity, beauty, majesty, grace, fertility, wealth, knowledge and so on. 

State Flag of Jammu and Kashmir 

The Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India which has its own flag. The flag depicts a deep red field which is a symbol of labour, a plough which shows agriculture and three strips depict the three administrative divisions namely, Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. 

State Emblem of Jammu and Kashmir 

State Emblem of Jammu and Kashmir was designed by artist Mohan Raina in 1952. The strips in the emblem represent the administrative regions of the state Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. The majority of the state population has shown by the ploughs and two corns. The lotus in the centre stands for purity and knowledge.
Facts about Jammu and Kashmir
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