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History of Jammu and Kashmir J&K | Ancient | Medival | Modern

Ancient History of Jammu and Kashmir The first period of the Kashmir history could be found during the epical Mahabharata period which shows that the
History of Jammu and Kashmir

Ancient History of Jammu and Kashmir

The first period of the Kashmir history could be found during the epical Mahabharata period which shows that the region at that time was the Republican system of Kambojas and Rajapura was their capital which is now called Rajouri. Afterwards, the region passed on the hands of Panchala. It is understood from the name Pir Panjal that is a corrupted version of the Sanskrit tribal term "Panchala’.

Early History of Jammu and Kashmir

Kalhana, the first Kashmir historian was a 12th century poet-historian who composed the Rajatarangini in 1148-1150 AD. This is the earliest source on Kashmir that can be called as a reliable historical text on this region. Nilamata Purana is the oldest text of Kashmir which was created by some Kashmiri Brahmins between the 6th and 7th century AD. It has sacred legends that tell the origin of the Kashmir valley, the rites and worships that are prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas. It is not seen as much reliable as the Raja-Taranga text. But still, Kalhana had used this text as a source to write the history of Kashmir. 

The ‘Nilmata Purana’ claims that the Lake Kashmir was once a lake that Rishi ‘Kashyapa’ drained out and then asked the people to settle in the valley. After that, the people were called Kashyap Mar and Kashyap Pura. The land was known by different names by different people. The Greeks called this as Kasperia, and the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang, who visited the Kashmir valley around 631 AD, called it Kashi-Mi-Lo. The Kashmiris in their own language call their land as Kasheer.

The Pre-History

Alexander Cunningham’s study of the old structures that were mentioned in the chronicles of Kalhana and the fact that it provided a lot of data about the pre-historic and historic period of Kashmir, showed that it was a good work. The Numismatic proof, in the form of ancient gold, silver, copper and brass coins, have given evidences of a series of kings as mentioned by Kalhana and other chronicles, up to the modern times. Dr. Sunil Chandra Ray states that the valley has Quaternary glacial cycles and has the evidence of its existence in the Lacusterine deposits of the 'Karewas'. It is split into two factions. The Karewas lower is of Pleistocene Age and the Karewas upper is of the second Inter-Glacial Age.
A planned digging at this place started in 1960 by the Archaeological Department of India. Many pits have been discovered in the areas close to the silt bed indicating that a primitive civilization of the early pit dwellers settled there which dates back to 3000 BC and is considered the only such like in India.

The Neolithic Age

The Neolithic Age was the time of the primitive technological and social development when men invented agriculture, pottery (which was used to store the harvest), domesticated horses and cows and started to live in the communities near the water bodies. Many evidences of Neolithic period have been discovered in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, mostly at Burzahom (Srinagar) which is the first archaeological site of the country. Burzahom had a neolithic settlement which is approximately 2375 BC old.

Asta seed of wheat, barley and lentils has been discovered at Burzahom. During this time, Copper tools were invented and also people made the stone tools more advanced by making a pointed edge in them for hunting, farming and erecting their dwellings in clay grounds. 

The principal instruments of this era were needles for sewing, harpoons for fishing and arrow-heads, spear-heads, daggers for huntingBesides the metallic and stonework objects, stitched hides have also been found at the site. An old skull that dates back to the Neolithic era was also discovered at Burzahom. The skull is hollowed out because of the hole dug into it, hence historians propose that surgical practices might have been carried out in the past.

The underground places of this site, above all, have been discovered. These accommodation units consist of a circle of shallow pits dug into the clay soil up to a depth of 3 metres. These pits are wide at the bottom and narrow at the top where there are holes around them which were the place for the poles to support the roof which was made of tree branches. 

These pits which include a grinding-stone, clay ovens, and a pot filled with beads and semi-precious stones have been discovered. The pedestrians of Burzahom left in 1400 BC according to the historians, besides the Burzahom, other archaeological sites of Kashmir are Begagund, Gofkral, Hariparigom, Olchibag, Pampur, Panzgom, Sombur Waztal and Brah.

Megalithic Culture/Age

The megalithic culture was the result of the Neolithic Age, when people started to construct the colossal stones or menhirs which were a symbol of the significant events of the community. These menhirs were big boulders or large rocks and stones. These menhirs were lowered from the hills by the people and erected at several places near the areas where people lived. Some of the most important discoveries of this age in the state are mudbrick structure, grity red ware pottery made on the potter's wheel, rubble structures, metal objects and tools made of bone and stone. Burzahom has the signs of the final phase of activity which was around 3rd-4th Century AD.

Ancient Historical Empires in Jammu and Kashmir

1. The Mauryan Empire

The Mauryan Empire According to Kalhana, Kashmir was under the rule of the Great Mauryan ruler Ashoka, who was a Buddhist follower, during 304-232 BCE. During his time, the city of Srinagari (now Pandrethan, the old city of Srinagar) was established. Numerous viharas, Shiva temples, Shrines, Stupas, etc were also constructed. To spread the word of Buddha in the valley, Ashoka sent Majjhantika, a Buddhist missionary to Kashmir and Urvasa. As Hiuen Tsang mentioned, around 500 Monks came to Kashmir and they stayed there. Then, people began to adopt Buddhism in the country. Therefore, during his reign, Buddhism was introduced in Kashmir. After Ashoka died, his son Jaluka became king and he defeated the Malecchas (foreign tribes) and restored peace in the region. He was followed by his son Damodar-II who was a Shaivite (i. e. believer of Shiva, the supreme God). As per numerous scholars, the Kashmir region was governed by the Indo-Greek kings for a period of 200 years.

2. The Kushan Dynasty

This dynasty was established after the Mauryas when Kashmir was under the rule of the three Kushana kings. Kalhana says that the Turushka kings were Hushka (who established the town of Hushkapura), Jushka (who established the town of Jushkapura) and Kanishka (who established the town of Kanishkapura). Kanishka (127-150 CE) built many temples and viharas (monasteries) in Kashmir. Historians have stated that the 4th Buddhist Council was held by Kanishka at Kundalvana (Harwan) in Kashmir which was led by Vasumitra. Ashvaghosa and Nagarjuna were members of the council. In this council, Buddhism was split into 2 sects, i. e. Mahayana and Hinayana. It was the 4th century when Kashmir became the center of learning for Buddhism and Hinduism. The Kashmiri Buddhist missionaries were the ones who introduced Buddhism to Tibet, China and other parts of India. Significant Kashmiri Buddhist missionaries were Kumarjiva, Yasa, Gautam Sangha, Dharamputra, Shyama Bhata, etc.

3. Hepthalites Huns

In the 5th and early 6th century, Toramana led Hephthalites Huns (Central Asian people) or the 'White Huns' and conquered Northern and Central India including Kashmir. His son Mihirakula (502-530 CE) was a Hun invader who wanted to conquer all of North India but was defeated by Yasodharman in Malwa. Following his loss, he went to Kashmir and defeated Gandhar where he killed many shrines and committed atrocities. The Huns influence was terminated after his death.

4. Gonanda Dynasty

The first king of Kashmir was Gonanda-I who was mentioned by Kalhana in the Rajatarangini. Besides, other powerful rulers of this dynasty were Meghavahana, Pravarasena and Pravarasena-II. Pravarasena-II was a remarkable king who enlarged the limits of the state as far as Saurashtra and conquered many other kings. He was the founder of Pravarasenpura (now the modern city of Srinagar) which was later identified by historians based on the topographical details. Another crucial ruler was Meghavahana, who forbid the hunting of birds and animals in his kingdom. Besides these, the other rulers of this dynasty were Yudhishthira-II, Narendraditya-I, Ranaditya-I, Vikramaditya and Baladitya. 

5. Karkota Dynasty

This dynasty was established by Durlabhavardhana (598-634 AD). The Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsang, spent nearly 2 years in Kashmir during the rule of Durlabhavardhana, and studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures from the learned scholars. The most outstanding ruler of the Karkota dynasty was Lalitaditya Muktapida (724-760 AD). He was called Samudragupta of Kashmir who conquered many regions in Asia and India i. e. Punjab, Kannauj, Tibet, Ladakh, Badakshan, Iran, Bihar, Gauda (Bengal), Kalinga (Odisha), South India, Gujarat, Malwa, Marwar and Sindh. 

He also cut the power of Arabs in Sindh. His triumph was welcomed by people even after many centuries. He created Parihaspur (City of Pleasure) as his capital close to the shrine of Kheer-Bhawani. Besides, he constructed several temples, one of these was the globally famous Sun temple (Martand), which was built on Mattan Karewa. The other notable ruler of this dynasty was Jayatida (grandson of Lalitapida) who was just like Lalitapida and also a great patron of learning. 

Both these rulers gave their patronage to Bhavabhuti, Vakpatrija, Udhata, Bhata, Damodhar Gupta, Manoratha, Sankhdanta, Samadhimat and many others. Jayapida's death marked the beginning of the Kakrota dynasty's downfall because of the weak rulers. The conquered territories exploited this opportunity and managed to get their independence back. Hence, the sovereignty of the Kashmir rulers was limited to Vitasta, (Jhelum) basin.

6. Kashmiri Shaivism

Kashmiri Shaivism developed in Kashmir at the time of 800 CE. It is a religious tradition that is based on the basic ritual practices, patterns of meditation, chakrodaya and asanas. The basic idea of Kashmir Shavism is the soul's unity with Lord Shiva who is the one, indivisible, absolute self and the highest reality. The start of Kashmir Shaivism is characterized by the ‘Shivasutra’, which is a collection of 77 aphorisms attributed to the Kashmiri sage Vasugupta. He was close to the Mahadeva mountain in the valley of the Harvan stream. It is said that Lord Shiva himself gave the knowledge of Shaivism to Vasugupta. Three major philosophies can be seen in Kashmir Shaivism. These are Trika Shaivism, Spanda Shaivism and Pratyabigna Shaivism.

Medival History of Jammu and Kashmir 

Jammu and Kashmir held the significant history between several rulers and dynasties in Medieval period. It went through a period of Hindu rulers as well as the Muslim rulers and even the Mughal rulers. Eventually, such conclusion showed a critical attitude of the medieval state toward inconsistency and uncertainty regards to the traditions of earlier civilizations. After seeing the downfall of the dynasty of Karkotas (around 855-856 AD), only in the early period many new dynasties that emerged in Jammu and Kashmir where one of them ruled the state. These are discussed below:

1. Utpala Dynasty (855-939 AD)

This dynasty was begun by King Avantivarman in 855 AD. He was the one who played a big role in politics and economy in Kashmir, and in 855 AD; he returned Kashmir from a long-lasting conflicts and difficulties. In the sight of Kalhana, Avantivarman initiated civic changes like building various towns and temples and also ensured a strong administration in Kashmir. He was also famous for the founding of religious complexes such as Avantipura where he constructed temples that honored Shiva and Vishnu. While ruling Kashmir, 'Sua' stood out in the Mir's family as being one of the most famous and skilful engineers of Kashmir. It is believed that he founded the town which is presently known as Suyyapur (Sopore town in Baramulla district). The administration handed over the power to his son Shankarvarman (883 AD), the successor of Avantivarman. It was the period the debret opal dynasty began to decrease and the civil war took place among the dynasty.

2. Brahminic Rule (939-948 AD)

The next phases after Utpala Dynasty was the Brahmins (the Indian people who were higher in the caste system of the Hindu religion) with a higher rank. Regarding to Hinduism, the Kashmiri council of Brahmins chosen Yashaskara as the King in 939 AD. He put an end to the civil war to bring peace back to the Utpala dynasty. Another king succeeds him, Sangramadeva (948 AD),he also killed in a revolt by the minister Parvagupa, during this incident all Brahmin powerful figures killed, the dynasty lost its supremacy.

3. Gupta Rule (948-1003 AD)

After 948 AD, Parvagupta became a ruler of Kashmir but ruled for only 2 years. Then his death happened, and his son Kshenagupta (950-958 AD) came to the throne. He tied the knot with Didda, daughter of Lohara’s King. In fact, she was the actual ruler of Gupta Empire. Her government was very effective and she also building several temples and monasteries in the state. Following the death of her husband in 980 AD, she assumed the rulership. She was a capable ruler who ruled the Kashmir feastfully. Mahmud Ghaznavi hoped to take the valley twice during her cruel and pitiless reign, but he could not. Finally, Didda transferred the crown of Kashmir ruler Lohara (Poonch) after the death of her son Sangram Raj, who was the son of Udairaj.

4. Lohara Dynasty (1003-117 AD)

This dynasty had its roots at Loharan with Sangram Raj (1003-28 AD) as its founder. Furthermore, this family had another leader called Harsha (1089-1101 AD), who was an art lover and encouraged literature. He and his son, Bhoja were powerful rulers but, surprisingly, in the space of one night, they were treacherously murdered by their Generals Uchchala and Sussala and the crown was then passed into their hands. And Jai Simha (1128-55 AD) was the last great ruler of this Dynasty and then Kalhana has completed his historical work Rajatarangini (1148-50AD). Kaishinha was ruled firmly and lasted for 27 years and established peace in Kashmir. The last ruler of this dynasty was Vanideva (1171 AD). Following the political uncertainty and turmoil.

5. Deva Dynasty (1171-1339 AD)

This dynasty ruled over Kashmir from 1171 to 1371 AD. King Sangramdev and Sahdev were the famous rulers of this Dynasty. In the period of Sahdev (1301 to 1320 AD), Kashmir was attacked by a chief (Mongol), Dulucha, from Central Asia. He was involved in a wide array of misconduct in the Valley. Therefore he fled the country away. Rinchan (1320-23 AD), a prince from Ladakh Kingdom who followed Islam and renamed himself as ‘Sultan Sadruddin’ was taking power. He died in 1323 CE. Post his death Queen Kota Rani married the Deva ruler Udayanadeva (who was a brother to Sahdev). Udayanadeva was the last Hindu king of the state of Kashmir. Thus, Rinchan dynasty came to an end in 1339 with the establishment of the Shah Mir Dynasty in Kashmir after the uprising of Kota Rani, who herself ruled the dynasty during this period.

6. Shah Mir Dynasty (1339-1555AD)

This dynasty was found by Shah Mir who actually became the Kashmir Ruler under the title ‘Sultan Shams-ud-din. ’ This is the time when Islam settled down in Kashmir. The most prominent rulers of this time were Sultan Shihabuddin (1354-1373 AD) and Sultan Zainulabidin (1420-1470 AD). 

Sultan Shihab-ud-Din

  • He was a good ruler who led many wars and extended his territories to Sindh, Kabul, Ghazni, Kandhar, Pakhali, Swat, Multan, Badakhshan, Dardistan, Gilgit, Balochistan and Ladakh. He was attacked by the king of Kashgar (Central Asia), who had the intention of expanding his territory into Ladakh and Baltistan. In the Sultan of Kashmir war Kangra was captured during the Kangra campaign of the expedition. He was finally challenged by Firoz Shah Tughlaq at the river Sutlej. Eventually, it was decoded that the land from Sirhind to Kashmir comprises Kashmir. Sultan Shihab-ud-din founded his new city and named it as Shihab-ud-din Pora (now Shadipur). He is called Medieval Kashmir's Lalitaditya as a tribute to his virtuous reign.

Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin

  • He was Kashmir’s king from 1420-1470 AD. He was an exemplary muslim ruler who re-captured Punjab, Western Tibet, Ladakh, Balti region, Kulu and Hazara (Ohind) regions with the help of his army. Kublai had friendly relations with his neighbors from Macca, Jilan, Egypt, Gwalior, Sindh, Bengal, Tibet, Gujarat, Malwa and Delhi. Having learned from his teacher Jonaraja (Kashmiri poet , historian), his disciple Srivara Pandita wrote Dvitiya Rajatarangini and Jaina or Tritiya Rajatarangini respectively. He started the royal kitchen for Hindu pilgrims at Rainawari, which now is well-known by the name of Jogi Lanker (Srinagar). He establishes a new city called Nowshahr. Along with these, he also established the towns of Zainapur, Zainakut, and Zainagir. He, in fact, constructed the first wooden bridge at Srinagar, ‘Zainakadal’. Zain-ul-Abidin’s demise (1470 AD) then heralded the decline of the Shah Mir dynasty because of incompetent rulers. This dynasty was ended in 1555 by Habib-Shah (Habib-Shahi ruler). He was dethroned by Ghazi Chak who was a commander who was a Military General.

7. Chuk Dynasty (1555-1586 AD)

This dynasty was founded by Mohammed Ghazi Shah Chak in 1555 AD. He was a grandson of Lankar Chak, who had shifted their base from Dardterritory, into Kashmir during the rule of  Sahdev. Chaks originally belonged to the Daradi tribe which lived in the Gilgit Huza territory. Kashmiri Chak rulers spared the intrusion attempts of Mughal rulers such as Babur and Humayun who aspired to annex Kashmir into their empires. When his father Sn Ali Shah Chak died in 1579, Sn. Yuki Lie became shah and ruled the Chak dynasty from 1579 to 1586. Sultan Akbar called him to Delhi for talks. But, he, instead of talking, imprisoned him in the Bihar region and died there. The rule of Yaqub Shah Chak, who was the son of Qutub Shah, started after Qutub Shah's death. In his attempt to repel the Mughal army he could not master the waters at Haripur in the face of Qasim Khan’s attack. Consequently, the authority of the Mughal was established in Kashmir in 1587.

8. Mughal Rule (1587-1752 AD)

Mughal Period of Jammu and Kashmir region was widely known as "Emperor Akbar's Paradise" due to powerful impact this dynasty has left in the region. The Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Kashmir in 1586 AD. The Mughals remained in power in Kashmir from 1587 to 1752 AD. Important Mughal rulers who ruled Kashmir were as follows:The Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Kashmir in 1586 AD. The Mughals remained in power in Kashmir from 1587 to 1752 AD. Important Mughal rulers who ruled Kashmir were as follows:


  • After becoming the ruler of Kashmir in 1587, Akbar vested the responsibility for provincial revenue settlement in hands of Raja Todermal the great Finance and Revenue Minister. Removing even the hill settlement, that is in the valley, brings us back to this early revenue settlement. In 1590 AD, Akbar constructed Hari-Parbat Fort in Srinagar with a new city called Nagar-Magar nearby. Mughals admired Kashmir very much thanks to its beauty and artisanship.


  • Kashmir fell under the rule of Jahangir in AD 1605. There he visited 13 times. As he was an art lover, he made many a famous garden in Kashmir, such as Nishat Bagh and Shalimar Bagh. He also had gardens made at Achabal and Verinag.


  • The rule of Shahjahan in Kashmir came in 1628 A. D. He was also an art lover who had Chashme Shahi garden made through his Governor Ali Mardan Khan in 1632 A. D. He also ordered the making of the part of Shalimar BaghHe also included those traits in the Verinag garden like fountains and cascades, etc.


  • In 1658 AD, Kashmir came under the rule of Aurangzeb. During his reign there were plots, revolts, anarchy and disorders everywhere. This also had an effect of Kashmir as the Mughal governors began to plunder people's wealth, which caused many people to adopt policies of religious intolerance and fanaticism. As per Francis Bernier, a Frenchman who had accompanied him on his voyage, Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only in 1665 AD. By Mughal rulers after Aurangzeb, the huge expansion of the empire as well as Kashmir which was no more possible.
After the end of Mughal empire during Medieval times following the going away of that period into Modernity, it is safe to say that the modern era of Jammu and Kashmir is the period of greatest transformation in the state's history. Death of the Afghan rulers, the Sikhs, Dogras (Dogs) handing over the control of the state, and later inclusion into the Indian Union through the Seal (Instrument of Accession) were the successive events of the history of Jammu and Kashmir.

Modern History of Jammu and Kashmir 

9. Afghan Rule (1752-1819 AD)

The coming of the last of the Mughals ruler(s) i. e. after Aurangzeb, triggered a lot of chaos in Kashmir. The eighth through twelfth rulers of Kashmir were the later Mughals. It was no other thing but looting and plunder and severe religious intolerance that the governors showed towards the people. At this moment, the two Kashmiri nobles Miri Muquim Kant and Khwaja Zahir Didmari, who were then staying in the city, secretly invited Ahmad Shah Abdali Durrani of Kabul (one of the successors of Nadir Shah) who was sitting at Lahore in 1752 AD to invade and capture the territories of Kashmir. And he consented to do the same as he employed the Afghan army to subjugate the Kashmir. After turning Mughals from their power, in 1752 AD, Kashmir has welcomed the reign of the Afghans, which lasted for 67 years. 

This period is known as a black period of the Kashmiri history. The ruler, and the subedars (Governors) exhibited their cruelty and wars amongst themselves. The first Afghan Governor in Kashmir Abdullah Khan Aqasi burnt a bloody field and tasted of terror and anxiety. Everything was start since being set up to mortgaged to robbed by the soldiers and they were sometimes even not safe in their own houses. In that dark age an administrator from the "Hindu" dynasty called Raja Sukh Jivan ruled in Kashmir and was able to restore peace, but only for a short time (1754-1762 AD) who was defeated again by Ahmad Shah Abdali Durrani. 

Subsequently, after (his death in 1772) AD rule of Abdali witnessed quick fluctuations in the succession. 65 years of Afghan governmental work were time and space for 28 subedars. The most worse was yet to come with the commander dismissing these hostilities in an uncertain manner and further turning the real commander into vicious robbers. Consequently, it is only the because of some vicious rulers of this Pathan that the rule is remembered in Kashmir.

The two Kashmiri Pandits who lost their courage in fear of Afghan rulers Prince Rajkak and Birabal Dhar, went to Ranjit Singh at Lahore and asked to defend Kashmir. Therefore, in 1819 AD, blame was placed on the Maharaja and 30000 Sikhs were sent to take Kashmir.

11. Sikh Rule (1819-1846 AD)

The fall of Afghan rulers added Kashmir to the territory of the Sikh empire, from 1819-1846 AD. Only 27 years did Sikh’s authorized rulers in Kashmir through 10 of them. First Sikh Kashmir Governor was Dwan Mittiram. Sikhs rulers were at Lahore and that was very far from Kashmir so the consideration they gave to the Kashmir was too little. Similarly, the natural misfortune i. e. untimely winter, famine and inattention of the ruler exacerbate it even more.
During this period, there were two English people from East India Company who came to the Kashmir i. e. Mr William Moorcroft (1822 AD) and Darjeeling House or Srinagrar (1846 AD) Conjuncture the situation of Kashmir and the folks, they found them in very miserable condition. Poverty and hungers were viral in the state, villages of half of the population were abandoning and the remaining people have challenged their life by severe illnesses. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839 AD. , Punjab experienced an outbreak of mutiny in the Sikh Army, which further led to a period of upheaval.
Before Second Anglo-Sikh War (1845-1846 AD), which is East India Company’s takeover of Lahore, was the first Anglo-Sikh War. To changes in political system brought in by the decline of Sikh empire in Punjab in 1846, so did the governance of the Kongs decidally got undermined. The last Governor of Kashmir who was also the Sikh ruler was Sheikh Imam-ud-din. His Sikh Army Chief, Gulab Singh Dogra, one day also made a move to invade Kashmir thereby starting another rule in the valley. 

10. Dogra Rule in Kashmir

Sikh Army Chief Gulab Singh after adopted by Maharaja Ranjit Singh as the Raja of Kashmir seized the moment to collaborate with the British government to annex Kashmir. The Treaty of Amritsar, also known as ‘Kashmir Cessation’, was negotiated between the British Government and Maharaja Gulab Singh f Kashmir on 16th March 1846 AD. 

Within the terms of this treaty, Kashmir was sold to Maharaja Gulab Singh for rupees 750,000 and endowed him and hisHe was assigned all the hilly areas, including the city of Nawanshahr and west of river Sutlej. Nevertheless, a formal obligation was on him to acknowledge the British Government as the supreme authority which meant that he had to contribute, a symbolic tribute however, and also to send some of his men in the troops employed by the British. 

After that, Maharaj Gulab Singh finally acquired possession on Kashmir on the 9th November, 1846 AD. through the conquest of the last Sikh Governor who was still unwilling to surrender the province. There he politically united the three regions; such as Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, and set up a princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. He wielded his power until 1857 and reinstated the implementation of a legal system of administration in the region which again enabled a peaceful environment.

Maharaja Ranbir Singh

  • He ascended the throne in 1857 A. D. and stayed on seat till 1885. He was the son of Maharaja Gulab Singh. Through the Jammu temple complex, these Maharajas reconstructed Raghunath. Here was established the successful and flourishing centre of the Sanskrit education where Brahmins, the priests, were the students. During his period the Gilgit, Astore, Hunza-Nagar, whatever part that lie across the Himalayas were added and thus became part of Jammu & Kashmir. Lastly, he built the biggest Shiva temple in the North of India - Ranbireshvaram temple, and other temples at Jammu and Utter Behani. Artha Dharm also instituted a trust named Dharmartha Trust to run all these temples. Through this establishment, he has produced a Research and Translation Bureau called ‘Daarul Tarjunah’; a great Pathshala was named a Modern Schools. He likewise worked on making the Banihal-cart road (road from Jammu to Srinagar) and took it into the modern highway.

Maharaja Pratap Singh

  • He became the king of Ethiopia in 1885 AD. He was born to the Maharaja Ranbir Singh. While under the British, Maharaja was advised by a resident on most crucial subjects. He initiated the construction of Jhelum valley road, followed by Banihal cart road. He built a bridge over the Tawi river and a railway linkage was established between the railway line from Jammu to Sialkot city. He had also dug two canals in the state besides Ranbir canal and Pratap canal. During the period of his reign, the state established its first hydro-electric project at Mohra (which was about 22 km away from town). 5 km. from Baramulla, towards Uri. For the city of Jammu and Srinagar, Municipal associations were also created.

Maharaja Hari Singh

  • He obtained his authority in the year 1925 A. D. He was the nephew of Maharaja Pratap Singh. He was keen on the state and made many reforms such as the compulsory nature of primary education, prohibition of child marriage laws and opening sacred places for the poor. He establish the first legislature of J&K in 1934 under the constitution act 1934 BC it consist of the council comprising of  Prime Minister and minister appointed by him and the assembly consist 75 member and known as ‘Praja Sabha’.

Administration During Dogra Rule

The region of Jammu during Dogra Regime was found from the River Ravi in the South to the Jhelum River in the North lying at the South of the Pir Panjal Range. Details stressed on the fact that whole of Dugar region along with Mirpur of the Western Punjabi speaking people were also included.

Kashmir province, which covered the entire Kashmir valley and Western District of Muzaffarabad, had a homogenous population. The valley of Kashmir was divided into two parliamentary constituencies Anantnag and Baramulla.

It was decided that Srinagar would be made the summer capital of the province. Previously the governor was residing in Jammu.

Thanadar was responsible for the regional command of frontier area of Ladakh. There were a few  up to task Thanedars namely Magna, Mehta Basti Ram, and Mehta Mangal who made the administration of Ladakh somewhat modern for the first time.

The district of Baltistan was governed by Thanedar as the bureaucrat in-charge of Askardu, which was the main town of the district.

After that, Ladakh and Baltistan were combined, and then a single administrator was given the responsibility of Leh in summer and Askardu in winter.

A separate division of Gilgit was established with the provincial headquarters based in the town of Gilgit.

It was this administration that held sway from beginning till the end of Dogra Raj in 1947 when India became a free nation.

Jammu and Kashmir's occupation by the Indian Union has people of the State confused about their true identity.

Emergence of Jammu and Kashmir as an State of Indian Union

India became free from the Imperial power and for the first time two free nations, namely India and Pakistan, were born in 1947. The Power of and Kashmir, whose ruler was King Mahraja Hari Singh was given the choice to either join India or Pakistan or remain free with some compromises.
The Maharaja, Hari Singh, therefore, in October 1947 signed an Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union because of the Mutiny of his Muslim subjects in the Western front him and interference of the Pashtun Tribesmen from Afghanistan. Because of this there has been the Principality p to India and thereby the state was lost to the troops of Pakistan. India filled its army in Kashmir in January of that year, at the same time with the filing of a complaint to the UN Security Council.
The individualized warfare was ended by the United Nations Intervention in January 1949. Subsequently, in July 1949, India and Pakistan finally agreed on the truce line which divided the two countries into Kashmir valley and Pakistan and was termed as the 'Line of Control' (LoC). So it came to be that a line of control was drawn by the whole Jammu and part of Kashmir was sliced off. This line indicates not a change, but only the result of my feelings.
A Regent Known to be Yuvraj Karan Singh, son of Maharaja Hari Singh, in 1949. In 1952 the monarchy was overthrown and Sheikh Karan Singh was appointed Sadar-i-Riyasat (Head of State) and after served as first Governor of J&K from 1967 to 1967.
The last settlement was put forward after many to end the issue between the Kashmir but no final result would be achieved were a Chinese incursion into Ladakh took place in 1962 and a war between India and Pakistan occurred in 1965 respectively. This warfare was concluded consequently by the Treaty of Tashkent, also known as the Takshkent Agreement that was signed in 1966 as another significant event in the history of the two nations.
The year provides another example as 1971 the two countries had a war and Bangladesh was born and came into existence. On the other hand, several other agreements too existed in 1972 'Shimla Agreement', this issue doesn’t find its resolution among two nations. The LOC suffers breaches sometimes, while a peaceful state within the region remains elusive.
History of Jammu and Kashmir
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